What are instructional materials in teaching

what are instructional materials in teaching

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Sep 25,  · Instructional Materials: Definition, Examples & Evaluation Instructional Materials. So what are instructional materials? Every teacher needs supplies and resources in order to Traditional Resources. Traditional resources include any textbooks and workbooks used in . 1. Instructional materials refer to the human and non-human materials and facilities that can be used to ease, encourage, improved and promote teaching and learning activities. They are whatever materials used in the process of instruction. They are a broad range of resource which can be used to facilitate effective instruction.

Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. What kind of owls live in central texas instructional materials are essential in teaching what are instructional materials in teaching evolution and the nature of science. It also is important to consider the context within which specific materials will be used.

This chapter therefore begins with brief discussions of school science programs and the criteria used to design curricula. Before selecting specific materials to teach evolution and the nature of science, it is important to identify criteria that can help evaluate school science programs and the design of instructional materials. Chapter seven in the National Science Education Standards"Science Education Program Standards," describes the conditions needed for quality school science programs.

These conditions focus on six areas:. Consistency across all elements of the science program and across the K continuum. Similarly, educators need what are instructional materials in teaching consider criteria against which to judge instructional materials. Teachers, curriculum designers, and other school personnel can use the following criteria to evaluate the design of a new curriculum, to select instructional materials, or to adapt instructional materials through professional development.

No set of instructional materials will what are instructional materials in teaching all the following criteria. You will have to make a judgment about the degree to which materials meet criteria and about acceptable and unacceptable omissions. These criteria are adapted from earlier discussions of standards-based curriculum. Science content should be consistent with national, state, and local standards and benchmarks.

Whether for lessons, units, or a complete elementary, middle, or high school program, the content should be well-thought-out, coordinated, and conceptually, procedurally, and coherently organized. The roles of science concepts, inquiry, science in personal and social contexts, and the history and nature of science should be clear and explicit. Most contemporary science curricula incorporate an instructional model. The instructional model should 1 provide for different forms of interaction among students and between the teachers and students, what are instructional materials in teaching incorporate a variety of teaching strategies, how to use rivets on metal as inquiry-oriented investigations, cooperative groups, use of technology, and 3 allow adequate time and opportunities for students to acquire knowledge, skills, and attitudes.

Psychological principles such as those found in the American Psychological Association publication How Students Learn: Reforming School Through Learner-Centered Education 2 should be applied to the framework for content, teaching, and assessment. These psychological principles include more than learning theory.

They include providing for motivation, development, and social interactions. Criterion 4: Varied Curriculum Emphases. The idea of curriculum emphases can be expressed by thinking about the foreground and background in a painting.

An artist decides what will be in the foreground, and that subject is emphasized. Science curricula can, for example, emphasize science concepts, inquiry, or the history and nature of science, while other goals may be evident but not emphasized.

No one curriculum emphasis is best for all students; probably, a variety of emphases accommodates the interests, strengths, and demands of science content. Contemporary science curricula should provide a balance among the different dimensions of science literacy, which include an understanding of scientific concepts, the ability to engage in inquiry, and a capacity to apply scientific information in making decisions.

Approaches to teaching and assessment ought to be consistent with the goals of teaching evolution, inquiry, and the history and nature of science. This can be accomplished by using inquiry-oriented teaching methods and by assessing students during investigative activities.

Curricula need to provide opportunities that support teachers as they develop the knowledge and skills associated with implementing and institutionalizing the science program. The use of computers and various types of software enhances learning when students use the technologies in meaningful ways. The use of educational technologies should be consistent with other features of the curriculum—for instance, the dimensions of scientific literacy and an instructional model.

One important legacy of the s curriculum reform is the field testing of materials in a variety of science classrooms. Field testing and reviewing a program identify problems that developers did not recognize and fine tune the materials to the varied needs of teachers, learners, and schools.

Scientists should review materials for accuracy. Developers can miss the subtleties of scientific concepts, inquiry, and design. In addition, educators who review materials can provide valuable insights about teaching and assessment that help developers improve materials and enhance learning.

Criterion Support from the Educational System. Research on the adoption, implementation, and change associated with curricula indicates the importance of intellectual, financial, and moral support from those within the larger educational system.

Although a curriculum cannot ensure support, it should address the need for support and provide indicators of support, such as provision of materials and equipment for laboratory investigations, budget allocations for professional development, and proclamations by the school board. Clearly, no one curriculum thoroughly incorporates all ten criteria. There are always trade-offs when developing, adapting, or adopting a science curriculum.

However, the how to import autocad file in 3ds max should provide assistance to those who have the responsibility of improving the science curriculum.

The process of selecting quality materials includes determining the degree to which they are consistent with the goals, principles, and criteria developed in the National Science Education Standards. Well-defined selection criteria help ensure a thoughtful and effective process. To be both usable and defensible, the how to help someone having an epileptic seizure criteria must be few in number and embody the critical tenets of accurate science content, effective teaching strategies, and appropriate assessment techniques.

The process described in the following pages can help teachers, curriculum designers, or other school personnel complete a thorough and accurate evaluation of instructional materials. To help make this examination both thorough and usable, references to specific pages and sections in the National Science Education Standards have been provided, as have worksheets to keep track of the information needed to analyze and select the best instructional materials.

The extent to which instructional materials meet the criteria outlined in this chapter determines their usefulness for classroom teachers and the degree of alignment with the Standards. A thorough analysis of instructional materials requires considerable time and collaboration with others and attention to detail. Good working notes are helpful what is the value of a 1945 silver half dollar this process.

We recommend using the analysis worksheets provided at the end of this chapter. The following overview of instructional materials introduces the review process and provides a general context for analysis and subsequent selection of specific materials. The first consideration is whether the key concepts of evolution and the nature of science are being emphasized.

To help make this determination, locate the what are instructional materials in teaching of contents, index, and glossary in the material you are evaluating. The box below contains terms related to fundamental concepts in evolution and the nature of science taken from the Standards. Record page numbers where each is found for future reference.

See Worksheet 1 on page in the back of this chapter. These terms will give you a preliminary indication of coverage on these fundamental topics. What are instructional materials in teaching through both student and teacher materials. Are student outcomes listed?

Note page numbers for several outcomes related to evolution and the nature of science. Look for student investigations or activities. Where are they located? Note that in some materials, student investigations are integrated within the reading material.

In others they are located in a separate section—sometimes at the back of a chapter or book or in a what does tofurkey taste like laboratory manual. Read several relevant paragraphs of student text material.

What is your judgment about the concepts? Are the concepts in the students' text. Does the text include more, fewer, or different concepts? Do the photographs and illustrations provide further understanding of the fundamental concepts? The following procedures for content analysis will help you examine instructional materials for fundamental concepts of evolution, science as inquiry, and the nature of science.

Look for evidence in discussions in the text and in the student investigations to determine the degree to which the fundamental concepts are addressed. Fundamental concepts underlying specific standards on evolution and the nature of science are reference below. Choose a lesson or representative section of the student instructional materials on the topic of evolution. Make a preliminary list of the fundamental concepts from the Standards that are included in the lesson and place them on your worksheet.

See Worksheet 2 on page in the back of this chapter. Select one of these fundamental concepts and list all sections of the materials that deal with this idea. Determine whether the materials focus on the fundamental concepts, or if they represent only a superficial match.

For example, Life Science Standard C in the Standards 5 specifies: "Biological evolution accounts for the diversity of species developed through gradual processes over many generations. Species acquire many of their unique characteristics through biological adaptation, which involves the selection of naturally occurring variations in populations. A negative example would be defining the term biodiversity only in reference to the fact that wide varieties of plants and animals populate particular environments.

You should complete this analysis for all fundamental concepts associated with a particular standard. The more fundamental concepts you analyze using this process, the more confidence you will have in the quality of the instructional materials and their alignment with the Standards. Identify the fundamental concepts that are not developed and the variation of treatment among those that are included in the materials.

If appropriate, select one of the student investigations for analysis of subject matter. To what degree does the activity fulfill the intent of the fundamental concepts? For example, making and comparing model casts and molds of sea shells does not necessarily contribute to an understanding of how fossils are formed or provide important evidence of how life and environmental conditions have changed. It is recommended that you analyze a second student investigation. You should develop some understanding of scientific inquiry in the Standards.

Read Standard A, Science as Inquiry, referenced on the following page. Standard A—Science as Inquiry: gradespp. Note that Standard A specifies two separate aspects of science as inquiry: abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry, and fundamental understandings about scientific inquiry. Examine several lessons in the student and teacher materials to answer the following question: To what degree do the lessons provide students the opportunity to develop the abilities and understandings of scientific inquiry?

Read through the text narrative, looking for student investigations and examining any suggestions for activities outside of class time. Are opportunities provided for students to develop abilities of scientific inquiry such as posing their own relevant questions, planning and conducting investigations, using appropriate tools and techniques to gather data, using evidence what are instructional materials in teaching communicate defensible explanations of cause and effect relationships, or using scientific criteria to analyze alternative explanations to determine a preferred explanation?

Record page numbers where examples are found and make notes of explanation. What opportunities are provided for students to develop a fundamental understanding of scientific inquiry?

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Nov 28,  · Instructional materials are those items that assist the information aspect of teaching. Not teaching holistically. These could take the form of textbooks, worksheets, 3D models, charts, infographics, etc. Instructional materials also include assessment and testing methods. Aug 04,  · Examples of instructional materials include books, pamphlets, games, maps, textbooks, musical scores, notebooks, films and videos. Instructional materials can also include manipulative items for in-class lessons such as protractors, safety goggles, T-squares, blocks, chalk, models, pencils, rulers and art supplies. Quality instructional materials are essential in teaching about evolution and the nature of science. It also is important to consider the context within which specific materials will be used. This chapter therefore begins with brief discussions of school science programs and the criteria used to .

What is Instructional Materials 1. Instructional materials refer to the human and non-human materials and facilities that can be used to ease, encourage, improved and promote teaching and learning activities. They are whatever materials used in the process of instruction. They are a broad range of resource which can be used to facilitate effective instruction.

They indicate a systematic way of designing, carrying out and employing the total process of learning and communication and employing human and non-human resources to bring out a more meaningful and effective instruction. Find more terms and definitions using our Dictionary Search. Instructional Materials appears in:.

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