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The principal allegation against them has been that they cause heart disease, according to the diet-heart hypothesis which was first proposed in the s. However, the results of these trials did not support the hypothesis, and consequently, they were largely ignored or dismissed for decadesЧuntil scientists began rediscovering them in the late s. The first comprehensive review of these trials was published in and since then, there have been nearly 20 such review papers, by separate teams of scientists all over the world. These papers are listed below. Please let us know if we are missing any, so that our list can be accurate and comprehensive. The most rigorous kind of data, which can demonstrate cause and effect, come from randomized, controlled clinical trials. Some 75, people have been tested in such trials, on the question: do saturated fats cause heart disease? Here is a list of these trials. Results: Fifty-nine SRs were included. The findings from SRs of prospective cohort studies, which frequently compare the highest versus lowest intake categories, found mainly no association of total fat, monounsaturated fatty acid MUFA , polyunsaturated fatty acid PUFA , and saturated fatty acid SFA with risk of chronic diseases. Dietary Guidelines. Bier, MD, J. Hill, PhD, Janet C. Ordovas, PhD, Jeff S. Krauss, MD. The totality of available evidence does not support further limiting the intake of such foods. What steps could shift the bias? WHO draft guidelines on dietary saturated and trans fatty acids: time for a new approach? This recent review, by a international group of leading scientists, looked at a variety of aspects on the science of saturated fats and urged the World Health Organization to reconsider continued caps on these fats. Maintaining general advice to reduce total saturated fatty acids will work against the intentions of the guidelines and weaken their effect on chronic disease incidence and mortality. A food based translation of the recommendations for saturated fat intake would avoid unnecessary reduction or exclusion of foods that are key sources of important nutrients. Conclusion: Diets that replace saturated fat with polyunsaturated fat do not convincingly reduce cardiovascular events or mortalityЕ[We] must consider that the diet-heart hypothesis is invalid or requires modification. Conclusions: Meta-analyses of observational studies found no association between SFA intake and heart disease, while meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials were inconsistent but tended to show a lack of an associationЕ. The AHA [American Heart Association] stance regarding the strength of the evidence for the recommendation to limit SFAs for heart disease prevention may be overstated and in need of reevaluation. Saturated fats were found to have no effect on cardiovascular mortality or total mortality. There was little or no effect on cancer mortality, cancer diagnoses, diabetes diagnosis, HDL cholesterol, serum triglycerides or blood pressure, and small reductions in weight, serum total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and BMI. There was no evidence of harmful effects of reducing saturated fat intakes. WHO paid for this review. LH's institution was given grant funding from WHO to carry out the update of this systematic review, to update a systematic review on the relationship between total fat intake and body weight and a series of systematic reviews on the health effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Safi U. Khan, MD; Muhammad U. Circulation the journal of the American Heart Association, original authors of the policy advocating for reduction in saturated fats, starting in Replacement of saturated with unsaturated fats lowers low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, a cause of atherosclerosis, linking biological evidence with incidence of CVD in populations and in clinical trialsЕ. The suggestion of benefits reported in earlier meta-analyses is due to the inclusion of inadequately controlled trials. These findings have implications for current dietary recommendations. The death rate from CHD was 2. Eight data sets were suitable for inclusion in meta-analysis; all excluded participants with previous heart disease. Risk ratios RRs from meta-analysis were not statistically significant for CHD deaths and total or saturated fat consumption. Conclusions: Epidemiological evidence to date found no significant difference in CHD mortality and total fat or saturated fat intake and thus does not support the present dietary fat guidelines. The evidence per se lacks generalisability for population-wide guidelines. The BMJ starting p. Details: This is a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials, performed by the Cochrane collaboration Ч an independent organization of scientists. The trials reviewed include more than 59, participants. Findings: The study found no statistically significant effects of reducing saturated fat on the following outcomes: all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, fatal MIs myocardial infarctions , non-fatal MIs, stroke, coronary heart disease mortality, coronary heart disease events. The one significant finding was an effect for saturated fats on cardiovascular events. However this finding lost significance when subjected to a sensitivity analysis Table 8, page Conclusion: People who reduced their saturated fat intake were just as likely to die, or get heart attacks or strokes, compared to those who ate more saturated fat. Details : This paper compares low-fat trials to high-fat trials and only includes those with detailed reporting on cholesterol risk factors. A total of 32 trials on nearly 9, participants analyzed. Recommending higher intakes of polyunsaturated fatty acids in replacement of saturated fatty acids was not associated with risk reduction. Details : RCT data reviewed is on , participants; observational data is on roughly , participants. The RCT analysis combined trials that increased either omega 3s or omega 6s. Cochrane Database Syst Review , An independent organization of scientists who specialize in systematic reviews. This review is an update on one conducted in Conclusions: There were no clear effects of dietary fat changes on total mortality, cardiovascular mortality, stroke, total MIs or non-fatal MIs. Meta-analyses and systematic reviews in reverse chronological order :. Furthermore, the subgroup analysis found a cardio-protective effect of PUFA in studies followed up for more than 10 years. Dietary guidelines taking these findings into consideration might be more credible. More data are needed to elucidate whether CVD risks are likely to be influenced by the specific nutrients used to replace saturated fat. Patty W. In contrast, replacement of SFAs with carbohydrates, particularly sugar, has been associated with no improvement or even a worsening of CVD riskЕ. The effects of various SFA replacement scenarios on CVD risk factors other than lipids and lipoproteins are ambiguousЕ. Total fat and types of fat were not associated with cardiovascular disease, myocardial infarction, or cardiovascular disease mortality, whereas saturated fat had an inverse association with stroke. Global dietary guidelines should be reconsidered in light of these findings. Conclusions: No significant associations for childhood saturated fat intake and cardiovascular mortality or any cause of death. For all-cause mortality the rate ratio between the highest and lowest quartiles of saturated fat intake was 0. For press reports and expert analyses challenging the hypothesis that saturated fats cause heart disease, click here. Authorities in the U. However these authorities continue their caps on saturated fats. The Issue. Widespread Criticism. Congress Is Concerned. Americans Have Followed the Guidelines. Nutritionally Inadequate Recommendations. Dietary Guidelines Science Is Not Settled. Who We Are. Board of Directors. Scientific Council. Sign Up To Newsletter. Newsletter Archive. Take Action. Heileson Conclusions: Meta-analyses of observational studies found no association between SFA intake and heart disease, while meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials were inconsistent but tended to show a lack of an associationЕ. This summary is by Nina Teicholz. Sign up for our updates on the latest news and more:. Last Name. Zip Code.